Don’t Unsubscribe from Spam Emails

You probably get a lot of email, and a large portion of it is probably spam.

“Spam” is a term for any unsolicited, unwanted electronic communication. It can happen over email, text message, website, social media post, comment section and more. We will focus on email spam today.

When you get a legitimate commercial email—in other words, when you’ve done business with a company, or signed up for special offers or other information—there is going to be a link at the bottom of the message. The link will either say “unsubscribe” or something like “change email preferences.” In either case, the link will allow you to take your email address off their mailing list. The senders are required by law (the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003) to include this option.

If you’ve done business with these senders, it’s fine to click the “unsubscribe” link.

However, a lot of unsolicited, scammy emails also include an “unsubscribe” link. These are the messages from “companies” you’ve never interacted with, who are just sending based on a list purchased from someone else that has been passed around between spammers and scammers, using email addresses gleaned from who-knows-where (hacked websites, data breaches, etc.).

In this case, you should never click the link to unsubscribe. These emails come from people who are not following the rules for sending bulk email, and they are not offering you a way to receive less spam. All you are doing is confirming that your email address is live, which makes it more attractive to spammers and raises its price when they sell lists. You might also be tricked into providing additional information. In any case, the number of junk emails you receive will only increase.

This requires knowing the difference between “spam” and legit commercial emails, though. If you’ve got a relationship with a company or signed up for promotional offers—sales from stores you shop at, new releases from online retailers you’ve bought from, for example—that’s not spam, even if you decide you don’t want the messages anymore. Click “unsubscribe” and the messages will stop.

But all those “You’ve won a $500 gift card,” “Cure dementia with this miracle food,” something-or-other-about-gutter-guards, and fake McAfee virus software messages (where they use anything BUT standard text characters to spell out the subject line)? Don’t even bother trying to get off their email list. Your best bet is to delete them immediately, without opening.

Fake Payment Scams

If you’re selling something online beware of fake payment scams.

When you use an online platform to accept payments (PayPal is the most common), you generally will get some kind of notification when the funds show up in your account. Fake payment scammers will purchase an item, then create a email message designed to trick you into believing that an actual payment has been made. They may use graphics and text from actual, legitimate messages, and many will spoof the sender address to make it more realistic.

 If you simply trust this email message without logging in directly to check your account and verify that payment has been made, you might send the item without having been paid for it at all.

In some cases, the scammer will also send you a message claiming they received confirmation and asking you to check your junk/spam folder for yours. This is a ploy to trick you into viewing the fake confirmation email, as many spam filters will flag them as suspicious.

The key to avoid this type of fraud has already been hinted at: never trust a confirmation email on its own. If a buyer claims to have sent a payment, login to your account and verify it with your own eyes. Contact the service’s support if you think the payment was legitimate but hasn’t shown up yet.

On a related note, as soon as a buyer tells you to check your junk or spam folder for the confirmation email, that’s a major red flag. And as always, never go off-platform (switching to direct text messages, for example) on any online transaction.

Invoice Fraud Targets Businesses

Are you a business owner? Do you handle the bills and invoices for a business? Be on the lookout for Invoice Fraud.

Invoice Fraud is when a business receives a bill for a service or supplies that it never agreed to purchase. The invoice looks like a legitimate bill. It may include language implying that legal action will be taken if it is not paid immediately. Sometimes substandard office supplies are shipped to the business out of the blue, then a bill shows up. Some scammers make phone calls demanding payment, but usually the bills show up in the mail or email.

Of course, if the business pays the invoice, that money just goes to the scam artist who sent the fake bill. These con artists bank on poor communication between departments. This increases the chance that someone will pay a fake bill.

Some of the most popular invoice scams involve online services, especially “online directory” listings and website address renewals. While there may be times when it makes sense to pay for a directory listing (your local chambers of commerce, for example), never blindly pay an invoice for an entry on some random website. Some scammers call asking to confirm details from a legitimate online directory, then send a bill. Make sure you always know whom a bill is coming from.

Your business probably manages its own website domain name. However, bills for “domain name renewal” will show up, claiming your URL is about to expire. Don’t pay more than you have to. Renew through the original domain registrar. They send email reminders when your URL is going to expire.

The best way to prevent Invoice Fraud is to communicate and be organized. Keep track of everything your business purchases, and never pay any bill without matching it up to a verified expense.

The Riskiest Online Purchase You Can Make

The Better Business Bureau has released its Scam Tracker Risk Report for 2021. Once again, the type of scam that topped the list was Online Purchases.

But under the category of Online Purchases, one specific type of fraud was the most likely to cause monetary loss to victims: Puppy Scams.

Puppy Scams start with a website that looks like it was created by a legitimate dog breeder. The site will feature photos of adorable purebred puppies, all just waiting for their Forever Home.

However, when you contact the breeder, you will find out that it’s not possible to see the dogs in person. COVID-19 provided a perfect excuse for this, but the scam far predates 2020. The alleged breeder will instead offer to have the animal shipped to your home after you pay up front for the puppy, as well as the shipping costs, which will often involve air travel with another person. In some cases, they promise to refund the shipping later.

You do not need a crystal ball to predict what happens next. Once you’ve sent money to this supposed breeder, always by means that give you no protection (wire transfer, PayPal Friends & Family, peer-to-peer payment app), you end up with nothing.

Preventing this scam is simple: never buy pets online. While there are legitimate breeders who have websites, none of them are going to sell an animal over the internet and have it shipped to you. You will always be able to meet the dogs in person. There is a slight crossover with Romance Scams in this regard—as soon as you find out that meeting in person is off the table, end all contact immediately.

If you’re set on a purebred, always visit the breeder face-to-face, no exceptions. Also consider a shelter or rescue dog, who make some of the best companions you’ll find anywhere.

10 Tips for Avoiding Common Scams

  1. This is how jobs work: the employer pays the employee, not the other way around. As soon as a job offer involves you paying for “materials,” or even being sent a check to cover said materials, making a purchase, then sending the difference back, that job does not exist.
  2. On a related note, “cash this check then wire (or bank transfer, or Venmo, etc.) some or all of it back to me,” for any reason whatsoever, is a scam 100% of the time.
  3. An online seller giving you their life story is a red flag, especially when it involves convoluted reasons they can’t meet in person (they work on an oil rig or are in the military) or can’t talk on the phone (recent throat surgery).
  4. Never, ever text a verification code to a stranger; the person asking for this has your username and password for something, and is trying to gain access to an account by tricking you into handing over the code that is sent when a website doesn’t recognize the device being used to login.
  5. Tech Support is never going to call you to tell you your computer has a virus. It does not matter which company they claim to be, but it’s almost always Microsoft (or “Windows Company” when they’re getting it really wrong).
  6. You did not win the lottery if you did not purchase a lottery ticket.
  7. Famous billionaires do not pick random people to give huge amounts of cash to.
  8. A lot of romantic relationships start online now. However, as soon as they start asking you to wire money, or to receive money and transfer the funds to others, cut off all contact because you are being scammed. Tip #3 applies here as well – constant excuses as to why they can’t meet in person or talk on the phone are major red flags.
  9. Never pay for a pet that you are not allowed to meet in person first. Zero exceptions. The “breeder” having a website with photos of purebred cats or dogs proves absolutely nothing.
  10. If you ever do fall victim to a scam, beware of recovery scams afterwards. This includes the same scammer calling back to offer a refund (that will still somehow involve you paying them). When you lose money in this way, it’s gone. Anybody offering help recovering your losses is just trying to double-dip.

Watch Out for These Fraudulent Texts and Calls

Does it seem like you’ve been getting a lot more text messages and calls from scammers lately? There seems to be an uptick, and in a few cases the senders or callers seem to have at least some correct information about their targets.

This first text message is an old-fashioned, non-targeted attempt that preys on potential victims’ security fears:

Your browsing history showed visits to unsecured websites. You now have (3) virus on your phone. Clean your phone [link redacted] ASAP

The next one has been reported by a lot of AT&T mobile customers, indicating that some information linking their name with their mobile phone provider (and number) has fallen into the wrong hands:

AT&T Free Msg: [correct first name], we accidentally overcharged your account last month. Kindly your reimbursement here: [link redacted]

There are other versions that mention a “gift” or “freebie” for paying your bill, “appologies” for signal issues, or a threat that your phone will be locked unless you follow a link.

On the robocall scam side of things, one common fraud attempt again apparently has linked potential victims with using (or having used) AT&T services at some point. One such robocall message goes like this:

“Hi there I’m calling you from AT&T DIRECTV to let you know that your existing account is qualify for 50% off. In order to avail the discount kindly call us back on [phone number redacted] thank you and have a great day.”

Student loan forgiveness is a hot topic these days, and this next robocall tries to strike up a conversational tone with potential victims. Since this call is also received by people without any student loan debt, it does not appear to be a targeted attack using personal information. The only unusual thing is the use of the correct current date in the call:

Hello this is Jay following up with an earlier request for a evaluating student loan forgiveness options or possible or payments. It’s currently [correct current date] and the reason for my call today is that we were never able to reach you to complete your student loan forgiveness application. Please give us a call by the end of business day today otherwise we do have to close out your application process. Please give us a call at [phone number redacted]. That is [phone number redacted]. Thank you.

In every case above, the only correct response is to ignore and delete. You can block the numbers, but since the scammers use a new randomly-generated fake phone number every time, it won’t do much good. Never call them back to tell them to stop contacting you; all this does is confirm that your number works. They absolutely will NOT stop calling. They will do the opposite.

One tool some mobile phone providers offer is the ability to silence incoming calls from numbers that aren’t in your contacts. This means you have to make sure certain numbers are saved in your phone (all possible work numbers, friends, relatives, medical providers who might call), but these tools can cut down a lot of annoying interruptions, at least from robocalls. It’s a lot easier to recognize and deal with robocalls when they’re just a (partial, usually) voicemail instead of a live call.

Mobile “Brain Games” Promise More Than They Deliver

If you’ve played the free version of any mobile games, you’ve probably seen more than your fair share of advertisements for other games while playing. After all, running ads for other applications is the primary source of income for most apps that have a non-paid version.

You may have noticed a number of ads for “brain games,” along with some pretty wild claims about their effect on cognitive function. Some advertisements will display “Your brain age is…” and a number that starts at 100 but begins to decline as the video of gameplay continues. The implication is that this game will either assess your cognitive state, or even reverse your brain’s aging process. Other ads charge out of the gate with “This game cures Alzheimer’s!”

First, that claim about curing Alzheimer’s is utterly false. There is no cure for this disease, and there are certainly no computer games that will diagnose, prevent, or reverse it. These advertisers are preying on anxiety about getting older. And it works. Dementia is frightening.

The truth is that there is no proof that these games provide anything but a diversion. Published science (the kind where actual science people do experiments using the Scientific Method, and then more science people say “hey wait, let’s do that again to make sure”) has found no real cognitive benefit to these so-called “brain games.” Nobody went in aged 85 and came out with the brain function of a 30 year-old, no matter what the advertisements might indicate.

But…the people who play the game got better at it; that means they’re reversing cognitive decline, right? Not that any experts can detect outside of playing the game itself. In other words, when you play a game over and over, you tend to get better at it because you learn what to do.

But…isn’t stimulation good for your brain as you age? Of course it is. But there are vastly more and better ways to get that stimulation and keep your brain as healthy as possible for as long as possible, other than matching shapes on a smartphone. Reading books, talking to other people, going for walks or other physical activity, eating right—all of these are far superior to playing a mobile game. Perhaps playing a mobile game is preferable to sitting and doing nothing, or staring at a TV, but probably not by much.

One of the common tactics used by con artists is to prey on fear or anxiety. Notice when an advertisement for a new mobile app is using this same method, and ignore ads that use unproven medical claims. A game that was proven to improve brain function and slow or reverse dementia would be considered a medical device and have to be approved by the FDA. And let’s face it—it would likely cost a lot more than $1.99.

Besides, almost every mobile game you see advertised in this way ends up just being a knockoff of a certain other confection-based game you probably already have installed.

Synthetic Identity Theft and Your Child’s Credit Report

You’ve heard of identity theft. Someone gets ahold of your name, date of birth, address, maybe some assorted other information, and of course your Social Security number. They use this information to open new credit accounts, wring all possible cash from those credit lines as quickly as possible, then move onto the next victim. Meanwhile, lenders and the credit bureaus believe YOU did all that, at least until you clear your name, which can take a lot of time and effort.

But have you heard of Synthetic Identity Theft?

This type of fraud starts with a real Social Security number, but pairs it with other information fabricated by the identity thief. So you might end up with your SSN being used with someone else’s name, a different address, DOB, and other details. Since the information, taken as a whole, is not linked to any real person, it makes this type of identity fraud very hard to detect.

Thieves also use this synthetic identity differently. Rather than quickly opening new credit lines, draining them, and moving on, they might establish a longer relationship with a financial institution over months, even years, using the accounts legitimately to build credit and good standing before making the final withdrawal. They may even commit “fraud” on their own synthetic identity, and attempt to get reimbursed for the “loss” before making their final move. The difficulty in identifying a victim buys them time.

Of course, eventually all that activity is linked back to the one piece of information that is real: the victim’s Social Security number. Someday, the bills and collection calls start rolling in.

The problem for the thieves, of course, is that a “used” SSN already attached to a credit history might raise red flags if it appears in a credit pull (when the creditor checks the applicant’s report) with a completely different name attached. This can result in the new account not being opened. This makes people with no credit history attractive targets for synthetic identity theft. And this makes children particularly lucrative potential victims. Not only do they have no credit history, if the identity thief gains access to their SSN early enough, it may be many years before the victim is even old enough to apply for credit.

When you’re checking your own credit report for unusual activity (at AnnualCreditReport.com), it’s important to also check your children’s reports as well, essentially to make sure no credit lines are currently open under their Social. Be sure to report anything suspicious. You don’t need your or your children’s credit score, just the report itself to make sure there are no unauthorized accounts.

Selling Online? Never Go Off-Platform

If you’ve got stuff to sell, there are plenty of online options. eBay and Facebook Marketplace are probably the most well-known, but there are plenty of others. And it’s possible to bring in some decent money while decluttering your own living space.

However, there are also plenty of people who will attempt to steal money from online sellers, and one of their most-used strategies is to convince you to accept payment off-platform.

Don’t fall for it.

If you’re selling something on eBay, for example, when someone purchases your item, make sure you do everything through eBay’s platform, including accepting payment and entering tracking information when you ship it. Do not allow a buyer to either mail you a check or pay through Venmo, Cashapp or PayPal Friends & Family, because you’re setting yourself up for a fake check scam.

The classic version of the fake check scheme uses a counterfeit cashier’s check, made out for a vastly higher amount than the agreed-upon price. When you ask the buyer why the check is so large, they will claim to have made an error—but hey, no big deal, just wire the difference back to them after you cash it! Of course, a few days later the check is returned as counterfeit, and if you wired money to this stranger, there’s no recourse. And if you already shipped the item, you’ve lost that, too.

However, there is a new version of this scam becoming increasingly popular. The buyer will offer to pay with one of the popular peer-to-peer apps (Venmo, CashApp, PayPal Friends & Family). The seller then receives a fake payment confirmation and sends the item, having not received any actual funds. In other cases, money will show up, but the buyer will have used stolen credit card information to make this payment. Once the credit card issuer discovers the fraud, the money disappears from the seller’s—your—account.

One of the first signs of a scam is a buyer wanting to communicate off-platform. Marketplaces such as eBay have their own messaging and payment systems in place to provide a digital “paper trail.” By keeping a record of every interaction between buyer and seller, the company can provide protections to both parties and help resolve disputes. As soon as you move your communications to text message or another platform, you have no record of anything the buyer said. You’re also violating the seller terms of service in a lot of cases, and you could lose some or all of your seller protections for doing so.

You Don’t Need a Stranger’s Help to Buy Crypto

It’s hard not to think about: if you had bought $50 worth of Bitcoin back when it was trading at $0.08, and managed to not sell it, not have it stolen, and keep track of the hard drive or other device your coins were stored on for the last 11 years or so, you would have…well, a whole lot of money if you sold it today. Millions of dollars.

This makes the idea of “investing” in other potentially up-and-coming cryptocurrencies (i.e., speculating) extremely tempting. And if you can truly afford to lose the money (by which I mean this: if literally throwing the amount of cash you are using to purchase cryptocurrency into a hole would not affect your financial wellbeing in any way whatsoever), there really isn’t anything stopping you. I’m not going to tell you to do it, or not to do it.

However, if you decide to go for it, you should know that crypto scams are rampant.

For the most part, cryptocurrency has gone mainstream. It’s still unregulated and not backed by anything or anyone, but at the same time you can now purchase coins through apps like PayPal, investment platforms like Robinhood, or dedicated crypto trading apps such as Coinbase (this is not an endorsement of any of the above, by the way). It’s a do-it-yourself kind of thing.

This means you don’t need anyone’s help getting into cryptocurrency. Anybody approaching you on the internet with an “investment opportunity” (for anything, but we’re talking about crypto today), or offering “help” getting into trading, has only one goal in mind: to steal money from you.

Some of these schemes are simple “take the money and run” deals, but some are more complex. They will take your initial investment, then show you a website that allegedly shows your money magically growing. You only transferred $1,000 (via Cashapp or some other P2P payment app) to this dude and look!—you’re already up to $24,000 in a few weeks!

Now try to withdraw your “earnings.” That’s when the runaround begins. They’ll tell you that you can’t take it out just yet, or to withdraw those funds, you have to add more cash to the “account” first. Maybe a few thousand this time? After all, you’ve already earned much more than that, and the gains aren’t stopping. It’s like magic!

The truth is, there never was an account. The scammer simply took your money, showed you a fake website with fake numbers to encourage you to “invest” even more, and then tried to get still more when you inquired about withdrawing it.

There are also “money mule” schemes involving crypto, which start with a stranger asking for your help with this whole “Bitcoin thing” they don’t quite understand but want to get into. They’ll send you some money through Venmo or Cashapp, ask you to purchase Bitcoin or another coin, tell you to keep a little for yourself, then hand over the crypto wallet information. What you’ve just done is volunteer to be the only traceable link in a money laundering operation.

If you are truly interested in cryptocurrency, if you’ve read up on the risks, if you have said “yes, I am doing this,” if your financial situation is such that you could watch that $20 or $50 or $50,000 catch fire and burn away to ashes in front of your eyes without shedding a single tear, then have fun out there, best of luck, don’t accept help from strangers, and don’t believe anyone asking for your assistance. If you’re going to lose your money on an extraordinarily risky investment, do it the old-fashioned way and throw it out the window yourself. Don’t let some scammer take it from you.